The beheading of British taxi driver Alan Henning.
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Cape Town - A man who was recorded being assaulted in an alleged mob violence incident in Valhalla Park, in a video which is being shared in social media, has refused to open a case against his attackers.
The assault comes after he was accused of raping a child.
In the video circulating on social media, people are seen beating the man with wooden planks as he sits on the ground. He appears to be dressed in only a t-shirt, and his penis is tied with string to a pole next to him.
A woman at one point says she had beaten him "enough" with a hammer on his genitals.
People kick the man, who has numerous facial wounds, while the crowd also threatens to set him alight.
A child can also be seen on a woman's hip, witnessing the attack.
Provincial police spokesperson Lieutenant-Colonel Andre Traut confirmed the incident.
"It is alleged by the community that he sexually assaulted a child, but police have no record of any sexual cases in Valhalla Park or any rape suspect who is sought," he said.
Family transported the man to hospital and police, but he refused to open a case.
"We are looking into the circumstances surrounding the matter," Traut said.
The world is full of multimillionaires who can't handle money. Because, if you have money, you want to go somewhere where it counts. Not stay in North America or Western Europe.
A majority of women across the globe suffer from the issue of a loose vagina at some point in their life. Loose vaginas is a cause of concern, since it makes it difficult for women to experience heightened sexual sensations and to have orgasm owing the reduction of friction between the vagina and the penis. In addition to this, it causes lack of confidence in women. For regaining the lost confidence and to enjoy sex to the fullest, it is crucially important for the woman to employ methods that can effectively get their vag back to its pre-delivery tightness.
There are several reasons why a woman can end up with a flappy vagina, most of which are nothing to be embarrassed of. The most common culprit for flappy ladybits among women in their child bearing ages is the act of child delivery. It is important to note that this isn’t a rule, but the more a lady gives birth to a child, the greater her chances of having a sagging vagina. If you are concerned that you are stretched, below are 5 tell tale signs that you should look out for.
1. Urinary stress infection
A vast majority of women who lose vagina tightness experience urine leakage commonly known as stress incontinence. This is an embarrassing condition that occurs when the muscles that control the release of urine and support the bladder become weak. Pelvic floor muscles can weaken as you age or after menopause owing to low levels of estrogen. Childbirth, injury to your urethra and pelvic surgery can also make these muscles weak.
Stress incontinence differs from common incontinence in that you leak urine when you do activities that can increase stress on the bladder such as lifting heavy objects, laughing and sneezing. The risks of developing stress incontinence increase with pregnancy because childbirth is the primary trigger for a feeble pelvic floor. Other factors that can aggravate the signs and increase the risk of stress incontinence include obesity, excess urine from diabetes, frequent coughing and urinary tract infection.
2. Difficulty gripping your index finger
Simply slide your forefinger into your vagina and clasp it with the labia by contracting the muscles. Then insert your index and middle fingers to assess tightness as compared to a single finger. If you can insert your ring, middle, and index finger hold together and cannot feel anything, then it is most likely that you’re loose.
Thankfully, there are ways you can tighten it back up again. Don’t wait until your vagina is loose to take action. Do something about it today and you will see a big difference within a couple of weeks. When you employ tightening techniques, you ought to be back to normal in several months. It takes some effort, however. You can’t just perform one or two exercises in a day and expect to bounce back.
If you want to tighten your vagina and get it back to what it was when you were younger, you are going to have to put in some effort. The main thing is you should remain positive. You do not need to contemplate surgery as there are other ways to tighten the muscles that surround your vagina.
Always consider the reasons your vagina may have become loose. As we said, the main reason is childbirth, but there could be other causes too. It may even be genetic or even due to exercises that you do. No matter what, a loose vagina can be dealt with if you take the right advice from the right people and do it accordingly. Too many women have encountered this particular problem but only a few have actually taken the next step to happiness.
There are a lot causes for a flappy vagina but not all of them are true, some of them are just myths that people throughout the years have believed their whole lives without any scientific proof. It’s time to debunk those false ideas as to why these things happen and create solutions that last a lifetime.
3. Trouble with orgasm
When you realize that you have difficulties achieving orgasm, it may be a symptom that you’re loose. An orgasm, also called climax, is the peak of a sexual response cycle, and is usually the result of intense sexual stimulation. It generally requires a lengthy, sustained stimulation, particularly when you are first beginning to explore it. An orgasm is typically considered satisfying, and will be followed by contractions in the pelvic muscles.
Failing to reach orgasm shouldn’t be the case, particularly since a vast majority of women are capable of achieving multiple orgasms. The gains of a tighter vag both for you and your partner are certainly precious of note. With a tighter vag, you won’t have any trouble reaching orgasms. As a matter of fact, you will reach multiple earth shattering orgasms. In addition to this, you would also be capable of detecting and controlling orgasm whenever it approaches.
Not only is it going to be an issue for you, but it will be too for your man. If your pussy is loose, there is a huge chance that your partner is not satisfied with your sex lives and that can’t bode well when it comes to long-term relationships. Sex is supposed to be enjoyed both ways, so if both of you aren’t enjoying it then both of you will be disgruntled when it comes to the bedroom. So, make the changes that you need in order to not only spice things up but make everything special again with your partner!
4. Insensitivity with smaller objects
When you aren’t satisfied by anything that is slithered into your vagina and you have a hard time feeling stimulated, chances are you’re stretched. Most people don’t know this, but inserting a larger object so as to feel stimulation is not a solution to their problems. While larger objects will bring you some benefits, the most crucial one being increased sexual pleasure; it will worsen the problem in the long run. There are various techniques that work to strengthen your pelvic floor muscles.
The single most popular technique is vaginal exercises that can help in making you tighter. You only need to insert a finger into the opening of your vagina, and tighten the surrounding muscles. You can do this exercise repeatedly throughout the day and it will guarantee to show permanent results within a month or two. There are a few more workouts that you can do to tighten your loose vagina but we will get in on that on a different day. It is important, of course, to feel great about yourself so as to lead a happy life. No one in his/her right state of mind would want to hang around with someone who does not feel great about themselves.
5. Reduced sexual pleasure
You have a loose vagina if you don’t have a lot of sensation from intercourse anymore, and your partner does not seem to enjoy it. A healthy sex life is similar to having a healthy lifestyle. They both have different meanings to different individuals. What makes up a healthy sex life for one pair may be different from what another pair desires. However, all women desire to be tighter which allows ample pleasure of sexual activity.
Similarly, all men also will never be bored with a lady who is tight. As we mentioned earlier, just because a stretched vagina is a threat to your marriage does not mean that it’s un-defeatable. In contrast, with a bit of effort, this can easily be overcome. Even better, the many tightening techniques out there will help you and your partner to enjoy intercourse more. So view this as a fun activity, rather than something you must do because you are a loser. You aren’t!
If you realize that you have any of these signs, your vagina may be a bit lose but take heart. You can visit a gynaecologist for a check up to see if some tightening will be required
or if you don’t want to go through that trouble, simply just Google “how to tighten your vagina”. The internet is full of great information on how to make things more snug downstairs and you can read up on all sorts of tightening methods such as kegel exercises, tightening creams and other great stuff that you probably didn’t know about. I once watched a Youtube video where a woman could pull a tractor with her vag! Seriously if women are capable of training their vagina’s to do something that extreme, anybody can squeeze a few inches off their saggy regions, without even breaking a sweat. Do your research and try things out, you have nothing to lose. It doesn’t take long to undo the damage and I guarantee that you and your partner will reap all the benefits after you add a few simple routines to your lifestyle.
It's not that we would be madly in love with Donald Trump. But he may just ruin the US. That would be much welcomed in all corners of the world.
Feminism, by creating artificial scarcity of sexual resources, is responsible for much of the deadly infighting among men, as well as male suicides.
The family of Stephen Collins fear the 7th Heaven star is on the brink of suicide over shocking allegations he molested several underage girls.
The actor, who played a beloved pastor on the hit family friendly show, has been left distraught after his taped confessions made during a marriage therapy session were made public.
Now those closest to the 67-year-old are deeply concerned the star has hit rock bottom and fear he may harm himself.
'His family by no means condone what he's said to have done, but it doesn't stop them worrying about him,' a close family friend told MailOnline.
'They fear he could take his own life. That's how low he is right now. No one wants to leave him by himself.'
His estranged wife Faye Grant has now claimed that Collins even had incestuous thoughts about their only child when she was pregnant.
She says just before giving birth, he told her how glad he was they were having a girl, who they named Kate, instead of a boy who he may have abused.
'The comment you made just before I gave birth to our daughter when you said you hoped we didn't have a little boy, because "you just didn't know if you could keep his little penis out of your mouth" was indication enough that you were sick,' Grant wrote in an email obtained by TMZ.
'I should have followed my gut then, and then again 14 years ago, and kicked your ass to the curb,' she added.
But a source close to Collins told the gossip site that the allegations are 'absolutely untrue,' that he never received that email and Grant never brought these claims up during their contentious divorce proceedings.
According to court papers obtained by MailOnline, Grant is attempting to indemnify herself and the divorce settlement from settlement any civil action stemming from the pediphelia charges.
Ar stake is property worth $13million including over $5 million in real estate and Collins' $100,000 worth of vintage guitars.
On top of that, a Massachusetts woman who worked as a nanny in New York in the 1990s, in the same building as Collins, has come forward to reveal his strange daily visits in pajamas and the 'semi-pornographic novel' he was writing.
The woman named Ilene called into Boston radio station Mix 104.1 Wednesday morning.
The family source says cast and crew of 7th Heaven - the popular long-running family drama which ended in 2007 - are in 'shock' over the bombshell claims.
In an interview with MailOnline, a cast member, who asked not to be identified, said, 'I'm very confused right now. Knowing Stephen the way I do, I find it hard to put this together.
'He wasn't that guy. He wasn't someone with secrets and angst. He was always very present with us. Fun and teasing. All we did is laugh all day long at work and a lot of it was because of him. He's not that guy to me.
'He took care of me and all of us during those years. He really was a father figure. Taught us to read music a little bit and would make up songs for any occasion for us. He was our glue that held us together. Our rock.
'We all had dinner together a few months ago. If this is true, it's disturbing because there was no outside appearance of problems. He never did anything sneaky when I knew him and I saw him every day.
'It must be buried in him. I wish him the best of luck to make it through this. I hope he goes to rehab and comes out the same role model rock star that we know him as.'
Collins, who famously played Reverend Eric Camden, the virtuous father-of-seven, is currently being investigated for child molestation.
An NYPD official confirmed to MailOnline that they had received a complaint and the Special Victims Squad is investigating.
And the LAPD is also reviewing their own 2012 investigation into Collins, and will be collaborating with New York authorities.
Law enforcement in California received the therapy session recordings two years ago but closed their case after finding 'no verified victim'.
In the recorded therapy session, Collins seemingly admits that he exposed himself to several young girls between the ages of 10 and 13 in both Los Angeles and New York.
Following the tapes released by TMZ on Tuesday, Collins life and career have been falling apart as he resigned from his position on the Screen Actors Guild board and was fired from the film Ted 2. Reruns of 7th Heaven are not being broadcast and he will no longer appear on the hit TV show Scandal.
LAPD officers rushed to Tarzana, California, after getting a 911 call about a shot fired inside Collins' house last night. Collins' neighbor, former Playboy model and Baywatch star Donna D'Errico, tweeted just after 8pm PT that the actor shot himself
It turned out to be a false alarm sparked by a member of the media who heard a loud pop
The actor allegedly made a written confession to his now ex-wife Faye Grant in 2012, which sparked the therapy session.
Grant secretly recorded the session under the advisement of her lawyer, who told her it was legal in California to record conversations in order to gather evidence on a person who has committed a violent felony.
And in explosive court documents Grant reveals she was 'sickened' after her husband allegedly confessed to living a vile 'secret life' in which he abused several children.
She claims the actor used his celebrity status to prey on underage girls and 'engender the trust of the families of the children he molested' in a decade of abuse.
Ironically Collins starred in the 1996 Lifetime movie The Babysitter's Seduction in which he played a recently widowed dad who becomes obsessed with his childrens' teenage babysitter, played by Keri Russell.
Devastated Grant also revealed Collins was treated for a sex addiction and was seeing a 'sexual dysfunction' therapist, but he refused to seek proper help or hospitalization for his 'predilection towards children', she said.
"The family feels absolutely betrayed by him. He's not the man they all thought he was and that's incredibly hurtful and confusing,' said the family source.
"With everything that has come to light they fear there could be other victims. There's so much that he has already hidden from everyone he's worked and lived with, they don't know what could come out next. Some are even wondering if he admitted everything he's done on those tapes, or if there's more he's keeping secret.
"The family are mortified and embarrassed. They remain concerned however for Stephen because they now know he has deep seeded issues.”
Yesterday cast and crew of 7th Heaven were said to be reeling over the news.
The family source, who knows several cast members and often visited the 7th Heaven set, said: 'No one had any idea. They had a reunion just last month and everyone loved it.
'There were never any signs Stephen had these issues. No one ever suspected a thing.
'Everyone who has worked with him has said he's amazing and lovely and one of the nicest guys ever.
'It's like the neighbors of the serial killer with bodies buried in the basement who always say, 'He was always such a nice guy'.
'We are all blown away by the revelations.'
America and Europe are evil. Let them self-destruct by fostering sexual hatred. They will kill each other, and the system will kill itself.
While today we use boring methods of execution so as to preserve the humanity of both the executioner and the executed, back in the day they really didn’t give a shit about the people they punished. In fact, humiliation and suffering were important aspects of torture and execution, and no one did this better than the ancient Chinese. They were highly creative and seriously sadistic in their methods, and liked to do things slow and steady, often prolonging death for days. Below are some of the methods used in ancient China to torture and execute prisoners:
Also known as “slow slicing” or “death by a thousand cuts,” Lingchi involved the removal by knife of flesh from the body in small pieces and small, non-deadly cuts to limbs and torso. After chunks of flesh had been removed from all of the limbs, they were amputated from the living torso. The executioner made sure not to bleed the victim too much in order to prolong death until the final cuts to the throat or heart were made. Lingchi was brutal and slow, and a punishment that carried on into the afterlife, where it was said that a person killed by lingchi would not be whole after death. According to Sir Henry Norman in his book The People and Politics of the Far East, the executioner sliced off pieces by “grasping handfuls from the fleshy parts of the body, such as the thighs and the breasts…then the limbs are cut off piecemeal at the wrists and the ankles, the elbows and knees, the shoulders and hip. Finally the victim is stabbed in the heart and his head cut off.” Lingchi was one of those brutal torture methods that were photographed in the 1800s with the advent of the camera, so there are a lot of scary photos of this one!
Flaying, or the removal of skin from the face or body of a person, was practiced all over the ancient world, but the Chinese were very fond of it. Customarily, it was done with a sharp knife, carefully slicing into the dermis and removing the skin of the face in one piece. Many Chinese emperors and empresses loved flaying their detractors, The Hongwu Emperor in particular – he ordered the flaying of 5000 women in 1396. The skins were either stuffed with straw or nailed to a wall to show off to any potential enemies of the state. I also found a particularly gruesome story about flaying with mercury, whereby the victim would be buried upright to the neck, and have two cuts made in the scalp and mercury poured into them. The weight of the mercury would cause the skin to separate from the flesh, and when the victim writhed in pain they would slip from their skin like a banana from the peel. I couldn’t find anything to back this up, but it sounds awesomely fucking sadistic!!!
Bamboo grows at an insane rate, sometimes feet per day, so the Chinese took advantage of this by using it to slowly kill prisoners in an excruciatingly painful way. The prisoner would be suspended above shoots of living bamboo that had been sharpened to a point. As the bamboo grew, it would slowly pierce the victim’s flesh and grow into their bodies to pierce their organs. Nobody had to get their hands dirty, the bamboo did all the work. I can’t imagine the terrifying feeling of the bamboo pressing into my flesh, knowing that it would inevitably enter my body.
The Wooden Horse
According to the Chinese historical documents known as the Twenty-Four Histories, a woman who was convicted of conspiring to kill her husband with her lover was often punished with a device known as a wooden horse. This was basically just a sharpened wooden stake that she was hung above, with the tip in her vagina, and then she was cut down, allowing the stake to enter her body and pierce through it until it came out the top. Holy fucking hell that is disgusting!!!
The Nine Familial Exterminations
As well as creative torture and execution methods, some Chinese emperors were especially brutal when it came to whom suffered at their hands. The Nine Familial Exterminations is a good example – when a person was condemned for crimes like treason, the emperor may also choose to punish eight other levels of their family, which meant their children, parents, grandparents, siblings, siblings in-law, parents in-law, aunts and uncles, often by a method like lingchi. In one case, that of Fang Xiaoru, a scholar in the Ming Dynasty who refused to write the inaugural address for the incoming emperor, he asked that ten levels be executed, so the emperor also included his students, and executed a total of 873 people.
Judge: Rape facilitates a natural society where men are protectors
In a surprising, and seemingly counterintuitive application of a wildly popular wrinkle relaxer, two Canadian urologists are testing Botox for impotence.
If it does for men what it has so far done in aged male rats, Botox may offer a persistent, long-acting (months at a time) way to restore erectile function in men, they believe.
Their preliminary data suggests Botox, or botulinum toxin injections, can increase blood flow to the penis by paralyzing the nerves that cause smooth muscles within the penis to contract.
Erections depend mainly on a good blood flow.
“The advantage of this would be that you inject it once, it lasts for six months potentially, and the pump would be primed every time you wanted to have sex,” said Dr. Sidney Radomski, a professor of surgery and urology at the University of Toronto.
Other forms of penile injection therapy have existed for years, but men have to self-inject every time they want to have sex. Meanwhile, Viagra and other pills that belong to a class known as PDE-5 inhibitors — drugs that act on the chemical signals that open up the blood vessels in the penis — have to be taken before sex, or daily. They can also cause side effects such as headache and heartburn. As well, Viagra doesn’t work for a third or more of men who try it, said Dr. Gerald Brock, professor of surgery at Western University in London.
“It’s probably 50 per cent of men who’ve had prostate cancer surgery; maybe 40 per cent of men with diabetes,” he said. “There are subgroups (of men) where the response rate is almost a 50-50 shot.”
Botox, he said, may help “salvage” those non-responders. Writing in the current issue of the Journal of Sexual Medicine, Brock and co-author, French urologist Francois Giuliano, go further, saying Botox could be a “potential game changer” for ED.
Others worry ED drugs are already perpetuating narrow social norms of masculinity and male sexuality — the idea, says University of Iowa medical anthropologist Emily Wentzell, that “in some way, to be a real man, you have to be this penetrative force.”
She worries categories of sexual dysfunction are proliferating and expanding, and that normal, age-related changes are being framed as “pathological.”
Writing in the Journal of Sex Research, Wentzell argues the medicalization of impotence “and the emphasis on casting phallocentric sex as the natural and healthy sexual ideal have been promoted worldwide through ED drug marketing.”
It’s very much a Euro-North American phenomenon, she said, noting Chinese men, for example, have had a “lukewarm” response to Viagra.
“Obviously medical solutions can help men who feel really bad they can’t live up to their own desires, and maybe their partner’s desires, and certainly cultural scripts about how a man should be,” Wentzell said in an interview.
“But we don’t think about variation in bodily function as natural anymore,” she said. “Instead, we’re narrowing our idea of what counts as ‘normal.’ ”
Men often don’t talk to their partners before seeking out ED drugs she said, or keep their use secret. “Yet research shows that when men talk to their partners, their partners are fine with the change, or they would be fine if they explored other sexual activities.”
Radomski has been using Botox to treat overactive bladders by paralyzing the smooth muscles in the bladder. The injections last six to nine months. He wondered whether it might work in a similar way for penises by allowing the smooth muscles to relax, dilate and allow more blood flow to rapidly fill the penis.
In a rat study, “we saw exactly what he had predicted,” Brock said. “Improved erections were actually seen.”
The animal model isn’t the same as humans. For one thing, the researchers used an electrical current to stimulate the nerves to induce an erection.
While much more research is needed in animals, they hope to start clinical trials in men within six to 12 months. For now there’s little real data, except for one small published pilot study from Egypt. There, a dozen men who received a single injection of Botox showed increased arterial flow and improved scores on a “sexual health inventory” two weeks post-injection.
Still, Botox isn’t innocuous. Made from the bacteria that cause botulism, it can spread to other body areas beyond where it’s injected. In too high doses, “If it goes into the bloodstream, it can kill you, basically, because it can paralyze everything,” Radomski said.
The plan is to use an exceptionally small dose. However, there’s also the potential risk of causing a permanent change like priapism — prolonged erections without sexual stimulation.
“I think that would be a very small risk,” Brock said, “but certainly that would be one of the things that we would be looking for and trying to titrate the dose so it would not occur.”
It's not that we would be madly in love with Donald Trump. Yeah, he may not be the brightest one. Not even bright enough for political correctness. But hey, that's a plus, not a minus. Fuck that political correctness.
It is the secret dream of every Swedish or German woman to marry a black men, or at least have sex with a black man. Every smart young African man should migrate to Europe. Free money, nice house, good sex!
Abstract: The Islamic State is actively seeking weapons of mass destruction and, to a limited extent, it has used such weapons in Syria and Iraq. It is also actively seeking personnel with technical experience capable of expanding its program. The Islamic State’s program faces many challenges and logistical issues, however, that have tempered their ambitions. This means the group is not yet capable of striking Western nations with WMD, though it cannot be ruled out that the Islamic State could deploy rudimentary chemical devices against the West in the next several years.
“If Muslims cannot defeat the kafir (unbelievers) in a different way, it is permissible to use weapons of mass destruction, even if it kills all of them and wipes them and their descendants off the face of the Earth.”
—Saudi jihadi cleric Nasir al-Fahd.
On November 19, 2015, a day after French police thwarted a second-wave attack by Islamic State terrorists in Paris, France’s Prime Minister Manuel Valls raised the specter of the Islamic State deploying weapons of mass destruction (WMD) against the West. “I say it with all the precautions needed. But we know and bear in mind that there is also a risk of chemical or bacteriological weapons,” he told the French parliament. Australia’s Foreign Minister Julie Bishop had earlier sounded the alarm on chemical weapons in June 2015:
“The counter-terrorism landscape is changing so rapidly that long accepted paradigms can quickly become obsolete. Apart from some crude and small-scale endeavors, the conventional wisdom has been that the terrorist intention to acquire and weaponize chemical agents has been largely aspirational. The use of chlorine by Daesh and its recruitment of highly technically trained professionals, including from the West, have revealed far more serious efforts in chemical weapons development. Daesh is likely to have amongst its tens of thousands of recruits the technical expertise necessary to further refine precursor materials and build chemical weapons.”
In light of these warnings and the Islamic State’s documented use of crude WMD devices in Syria and Iraq, this article explores what is known about the group’s WMD capabilities and the current logistical challenges that are containing its ambitions in this area. The article outlines how despite current intentions and active recruitment of technically trained personnel, the Islamic State is not yet capable of striking Western nations with WMD, though it cannot be ruled out that the Islamic State could deploy rudimentary chemical devices against the West in the next several years.
Among WMD, nuclear weapons cause the largest amount of destruction, yet they are the most difficult to develop or obtain. To develop a nuclear weapon, the Islamic State would first require enough fissile material[a] to support a sustained chain reaction. The specific quantity required is determined by the weapon design, but generally involves several kilograms of highly enriched uranium. The other significant limiting factor is the scores of physicists, engineers, and metallurgists required to construct the device. Fighting over the past five years throughout Iraq and Syria has created an intellectual drain in the region. In the distant chance that the Islamic State could assemble nuclear scientists to develop the weapon, it would have to conduct tests on weapon designs and construction methods in order to confirm that a nuclear detonation would actually occur in the final device.[b] These tests would easily be detected by intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance assets (ISR), which would presumably trigger a kinetic response from other parties.
Since the Islamic State lacks the personnel and material to build a nuclear weapon, purchase on the black market becomes the most likely path to acquisition. The Islamic State raised this possibility with its May 2015 claim that “it could buy a nuclear weapon through Pakistan within the coming year.” Although the assertion sounds far-fetched, the group has significant liquid assets from oil sales and other sources of revenue. These assets imply that funding is likely not the greatest barrier to purchase of a weapon. The key barrier is availability of material and identification of a willing seller.
The extent of the global nuclear smuggling network was recently highlighted in media coverage of the five-year, joint Moldovan government and FBI probe into the “thriving nuclear black market that has emerged in an impoverished corner of Eastern Europe.” In one instance a sample of uranium that could be used in an atomic bomb was seized. Regrettably, as the coverage noted, most arrests occurred after only a small sample of nuclear material was exchanged; the larger stockpiles from which the samples were taken may remain for sale. The confluence of existing nuclear smuggling networks, the willingness of actors to sell material, even to extremists, and the Islamic State’s financial capabilities increase the likelihood that the group could acquire a nuclear device. However, notwithstanding its desire to possess nuclear weapons, the probability of the Islamic State obtaining and deploying a device remains low.
Radiological Radiological dispersion devices (RDDs) are likely the only radioactive weapons that the Islamic State could employ. Far more simplistic in design than nuclear weapons, these devices feature radioactive material intermixed with conventional explosives. Though they do not produce the mass-destruction characteristics of nuclear weapons such as shock waves, fires, and electro-magnetic pulses, RDDs create psychological impact on affected populations. They are most effective when detonated in densely populated areas; otherwise, the dispersion of radioactive material would do little more than prevent access to the area for a period of time. To attack the West the Islamic State would be required to export an RDD, drastically increasing the risk of detection through ISR and human intelligence.
The black market is one avenue for the Islamic State to obtain materials that could be used in a radiological device. In the cases investigated in Moldova, nuclear smugglers were purportedly ready to sell Cesium 137 to what they believed was a representative of the Islamic State.
Within the area controlled by the Islamic State, there are two potential sources of radiological material: research facilities at universities and medical devices. Most of the material used in scientific research and medical diagnostics contain limited quantities of radioactive material. A material of concern is cobalt-60, which is used in medical devices and emits gamma radiation. In December 2013, a cargo truck carrying hospital equipment containing cobalt-60 was stolen from a gas station in Mexico. The theft prompted concern among U.S. intelligence agencies that the material could be converted into a dirty bomb. Prolonged exposure to cobalt-60 can be deadly; the timeframe of lethality ranges from minutes to hours depending on the level of shielding.
Since RDDs are no more complicated than an improvised explosive device, the Islamic State certainly has the capability to develop them. There are two significant obstacles preventing the employment of such a device in the West. One, there is no evidence the Islamic State has gathered the necessary radiological material, and two, it lacks access to the target. To transport and move an RDD to a target increases the risk of detection similar to the limits of transporting a nuclear weapon. The detonation of an RDD would have a greater psychological impact on the affected population compared to the physical damage caused by the device. Subsequently, the risk of the Islamic State building an RDD is greater than that of a nuclear weapon, however the risk of actual deployment remains low.
Biological There is little doubt that the Islamic State would like to possess and use biological weapons. A laptop recovered by moderate Syrian rebels during a 2014 raid on the Islamic State stronghold of Idlib allegedly contained files instructing Islamic State on the preparation and use of biological weapons. The laptop also contained safety instructions for the development of microbes in order to protect Islamic State technicians from exposure.
Despite the consistent reiteration of its desire to possess biological weapons, the Islamic State faces significant practical challenges. Like nuclear weapons, the development of biological weapons requires sophisticated personnel and technology that are not readily available in Iraq and Syria. The group could conceivably purchase and smuggle the materials needed to set up a biological weapons lab, however scale would become a significant obstacle given that effective production levels require a facility about the size of a large research lab with the corresponding infrastructure. The Islamic State would also have to contend with quality control issues as well. The power grid and generators in Iraq and Syria are not sufficiently reliable for the refrigerators and incubators needed to weaponize biological agents.[c]
In regard to the difficulties of biological weaponization, the 2014 Ebola crisis in Western Africa proves instructive. The spread of Ebola gave rise to concerns that the Islamic State would attempt to use Ebola-infected individuals as delivery systems for the virus. This non-traditional transfer mechanism could, in theory, infect people around the world. The reality is far different, however. When first infected with a virus, individuals have a low titer count (the concentration of virus in the blood). Once inside the host individual, the virus invades cells and replicates. This progressively leads to higher levels of virus in the body and a corresponding escalation of symptoms. At low levels, the individual is relatively non-contagious and appears normal. It is at the later stages of the infection that the individual is most contagious, but also the most sick and debilitated. Such highly infected host individuals are easily identifiable and often barely able to function, let alone able to execute a clandestine infection strategy. Diseases are not limited by national or regional borders. The introduction of a pathogen in a developed nation would be rapidly detected through bio-surveillance networks.
Biological weapons are very unlikely to be developed by the Islamic State as a mass casualty tool. Western medical countermeasures and response capabilities were able to handle the 2001 anthrax attack and quickly contain Ebola in the United States in 2014. All this suggests the impact of a deliberate biological attack by the Islamic State in the West would be extremely limited.
Chemical In 2013, the Syrian government deployed chemical munitions against rebels multiple times. International pressure following these attacks forced the Assad regime to join the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) and turn over all chemical weapon stockpiles. According to the OPCW, the Syrian government declared 1,308,021 kilograms of both category 1 and 2 chemicals,[d] and the OPCW oversaw the destruction of 98.8% of those declared category 1 and 2 chemical weapons.
Various media reports indicate that the Islamic State is currently employing chemical weapons, specifically mustard agent. These reports also reveal, however, that the agent is crude and has not produced the mass effects typical of a state-run program. There are also signs that the Islamic State “has developed at least a small-scale chemical weapons program, and may have manufactured low-quality blister agent or obtained chemical arms from undeclared or abandoned government [Syrian] stocks.” The possibility that the chemical weapons used may have come from material at undeclared Syrian stockpiles has been documented in various media sources. Examining samples of both the Syrian stockpile and the Islamic State’s chemical weapons would reveal not only whether this was true, but also information about potency and persistence, which is the ability of the agent to linger in the environment before environmental factors cause its breakdown.[e]
One concern is that the Islamic State may take advantage of recruits with knowledge of previous state-run chemical weapons programs in Iraq and Syria. In January 2015, a coalition air strike killed Abu Malik, an Islamic State chemical weapons engineer who had worked at Saddam Hussein’s Muthana chemical weapon program before joining the predecessor group to the Islamic State in 2005. According to U.S. Central Command, “his past training and experience provided the terrorist group with expertise to pursue a chemical weapons capability,” and his death was “expected to temporarily degrade and disrupt the terrorist network and diminish ISIL’s ability to potentially produce and use chemical weapons.”
With the Islamic State’s willingness to use chemical weapons, western nations should be concerned that the group or individuals acting on behalf of the group would attempt to deploy a poison gas device. If it did, the Islamic State would not be the first to attack on a western nation with chemical weapons. The Aum Shinrikyo released sarin in the Tokyo subway on March 20, 1995.
Before 9/11, al-Qa`ida began developing a device called mubtakkar, meaning “invention” in Arabic, to disseminate hydrogen cyanide and other toxic gases. According to journalist Ron Suskind, in 2003 al-Qa`ida operatives in Saudi Arabia plotted to use a poison gas device in the New York City subway system but aborted the plot after the group’s then-deputy, Ayman al-Zawahiri, decided not to “green light” it. The cell had planned to disperse quantities of hydrogen cyanide gas or another poisonous gas. [f] The simplicity of the design and the relative ease of obtaining some of the chemicals makes it a plot the Islamic State could mimic.
There are several constraints associated with developing chemical weapons. Chemicals such as hydrogen cyanide, sarin, and their precursors are highly corrosive and require storage in highly controlled environments. For example, high temperatures and humidity will affect both the chemical reactions used to make the warfare agents and their effectiveness. The corrosive nature of these agents also makes long-term storage and transportation over long distances very difficult without the appropriate containers and proper environment. When placed in a container, the agents will immediately begin to eat away at rubber seals and the container itself, making leaks inevitable. Such constraints make it likely that any agents developed by the Islamic State would most likely be deployed immediately after manufacture and within close proximity to the territory it holds.
While it cannot be ruled out that the Islamic State could deploy a rudimentary poison gas device against the West in the next several years, the group would likely need to build the device near the location of the planned attack, requiring it to recruit or plant its own chemists in the West, not an easy feat.
Moving forward, the Islamic State will most likely continue to employ its limited chemical weapon munitions in both Syria and Iraq while seeking the capacity to expand its program to strike at major targets in the West.
The Islamic State’s potential use of WMD poses a greater psychological threat than physical threat to its enemies. While the Islamic State continues to seek and develop WMD, its progress will be constrained by reality. Despite seeking technical expertise and having large sums of liquid assets at its disposal, the Islamic State’s logistical capabilities and support structure in Western nations is limited. Containing the Islamic State needs to remain a priority, however, as further territorial expansion provides an opportunity to acquire new materials.
The Islamic State will continue to employ the simplest and most readily available WMD at their disposal—chemical weapons. The proliferation of this program remains a concern especially with the availability of toxic industrial chemicals that could be modified and dispersed in a chemical attack. While the effects of such devices would be limited to a small geographic area, the psychological impact to a Western nation, for example, would be significant. Current conditions in Syria and Iraq in conjunction with international ISR assets constantly monitoring the area reduce the possibility that the Islamic State will be able to develop any other WMD beyond chemical weapons.
Captain Stephen Hummel is a FA52 officer and currently serving as an instructor in the Chemistry and Life Science Department at the U.S. Military Academy, West Point. Captain Hummel previously served in both Iraq and Afghanistan and as the USAREUR CBRN plans officer. He is also the author of the 2015 book STRIKE: A Firsthand Account of the Largest Operation of the Afghan War.
[a] Fissile material refers to “a nuclide that is capable of undergoing fission after capturing low-energy thermal (slow) neutrons.”3 Capturing a neutron displaces other neutrons from the capturing material, which leads to interaction with adjacent atoms, which in turn displaces other neutrons. This creates a sustained chain reaction that releases large amounts of energy. The three primary fissile materials are uranium-233, uranium-235, and plutonium-239. “Fissile Material.” United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, updated November 30, 2015.
[b] Tests are required to ensure fidelity of the design and build. Such tests do not entail detonation of a full-scale nuclear weapon but rather components of the weapon such as the trigger.
[c] Considering the Islamic State’s tremendous liquid assets, it could be possible for them to purchase the required generators and refrigerators. The process to grow and culture biological agents is neither short nor easy. The equipment required to culture large amounts of biological agents to be used in an attack would need to run for months and the culture areas must be completely sterile and within strict temperature ranges. Logistically, this is extremely difficult. Major research institutions in the West regularly struggle with maintaining sterile environments and contend with failing equipment that runs constantly. Without a reliable power grid, the Islamic State must then provide fuel to the generators, and although the group possesses vast amounts of oil, this does not mean it has the refinery capability to convert crude oil into gas. Furthermore, the equipment would need regular maintenance in a dry, dusty environment. Consequently, it would be an extreme logistical challenge for the Islamic State to maintain the proper environment to culture biological materials.
[d] The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons defines category 1 chemicals as munitions filled with schedule 1 chemical agents while category 2 chemicals are munitions filled with other toxic chemicals.
[e] If the mustard agent used in the recent attacks came from Syrian stockpiles, it could be confirmed by comparing the composition of components and impurities. A difference between the agents would indicate the inception and implementation of the Islamic State’s chemical weapon program. These impurities provide additional information about the potency, persistence, and absorption capabilities of the agents.
[f] Exposure to hydrogen cyanide gas at sufficiently high quantities is lethal within minutes. The LD50, or lethal dose to 50% of a population, is 2,000 parts per million, which corresponds to approximately 0.2% of the air as hydrogen cyanide. “Environmental & Health Effects: Cyanide Facts,” International Cyanide Management Code for the Fold Mining Industry.
That armies are mad up of men is something that has to end. Draft women into combat troops. Expose women to the same kind of dangers that men have faced throughout history. Hard labour for female convicts!
Michael Parkes, 45, was confronted and filmed in May last year by Stinson Hunter, who had arranged to meet him after posing as a child online.
Mr Parkes was later arrested by police but had not been charged.
Northamptonshire Coroner Anne Pember recorded a verdict of suicide, with the cause of death as hanging.
When I saw him he said he was going through a bad patch
Dr Alexander Wennekes, GP
Mr Parkes was arrested by Northamptonshire Police on 29 May last year on suspicion of meeting someone he thought to be a 12-year-old girl for sex.
Videos posted online
In a statement after the inquest, the force said it would have sought a charging decision based on the evidence supporting the allegation.
A force spokesman said: "It is clear that Parkes drove to Coventry with the intention of engaging in sexual activity with a child."
Stinson Hunter, who changed his name from Keiren Parsons, has caused controversy by posting videos of his meetings online and has been criticised by police for his methods.
At the inquest at Northampton General Hospital, the coroner said Mr Parkes, a warehouse manager and father of one, was "feeling low and depressed" at the time of his death on 2 June last year.
The inquest heard he was found dead in his car with a ligature around his neck.
Mr Parkes, who lived with his mother in Hemans Road, Daventry, was removed from the car. A passing doctor led efforts to resuscitate him but he died at the scene.
Dr Alexander Wennekes, a GP, said he had prescribed anti-depressants to Mr Parkes for bouts of work-related stress and depression.
Dr Wennekes said that earlier in 2013, Mr Parkes complained of feeling depressed after splitting from his partner of three years while she was pregnant with their son.
He said Mr Parkes, who also had a wife from whom he was separated, contacted the surgery again on 30 May, saying he was suffering depression.
I feel for his family and it's a shame for them, but ultimately he made his own choices,
Stinson Hunter, Internet 'paedophile hunter'
"When I saw him he said he was going through a bad patch, had financial difficulties, no access to his son and had been arrested by the police on what he said were false allegations - however, he did not explain further," said Dr Wennekes.
Mr Parkes' brother Richard said the arrest "had a significant effect on his state of mind and the actions he had taken".
Following the inquest, he said: "The police have not provided me with any evidence that supports these allegations."
Paying tribute to Mr Parkes, he said: "Michael's family are deeply shocked by his death.
"He was a loving father, son and brother and a caring person who put his family and others first."
After the inquest, Mr Hunter, from Warwickshire, said he did not feel responsible for Mr Parkes' death.
We do not condone or support the actions of Stinson Hunter
Spokesman, Northamptonshire Police
"I feel for his family and it's a shame for them, but ultimately he made his own choices," he said.
"I have done the right thing. He had been arrested and bailed."
Northamptonshire Police offered its condolences to Mr Parkes' family.
"We have a duty to investigate and respond to child abuse allegations," a spokesman said.
"A decision to arrest Parkes was made when it became clear from the material supplied to us that he believed the age of the person he was in communication with was 12 years old.
"In the light of Parkes' subsequent death, a thorough review was carried out and it is clear that it would have passed the threshold test and that Northamptonshire Police would have sought a CPS charging decision."
The spokesman added: "We do not condone or support the actions of Stinson Hunter."
Separately, Warwickshire Police and West Mercia Police issued a joint statement stating they did not condone his methods and adding that his actions "could have several serious consequences", including compromising continuing investigations.
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